111. Aushadha: This word Aushadhi is derived from the word Oshadhi which means ‘medicinal herb’. This word is generally employed for all medicines especially of vegetable origin. According to Charaka – Samhita (Sutra. 26, Ch. 12), there is no substance in the world which does not have some medicinal use or the other, but one must consider yukti or upaya (the method of use), artha or prayojana (the purpose) and the roga nidhana (the diagnosis of the disease – condition) before employing any substance as Aushadhi (Medicine). Moreover, after careful selection of the substances, it needs to be given Samskara (treatment) before being ready for use; otherwise their effect would be undesirable. Most of the Vaidhyas, whom I have met in my travels have told me that there are some specific “Nakshatras” in which they would harvest the specific herbs.
112. Pathya: The root term for pathya is ‘patha’ means various channels in body and ‘anapetam’ means not causing any harm to human body. So, any food which is not harmful for body channels and on the contrary which is wholesome and soothing for the body can be labeled as Pathya.
Besides prescribing the medicines, Ayurveda also recommends some prophylactic and interventional diet which also plays a major role in the prevention and management of the disease. Food and regimen, which is congenital suitably protects the body tissues and controls their excess or vitiated conditions and also helps in growth and development. This is called ‘Pathya’. On the contrary, any food or regimen, that is not beneficial to health is called as ‘Apathya’. Pathya if followed properly is competent of preventing many diseases and helps the Aushadha in the process of healing.
113. Aarogya: This is a state of being of the person when he/she is firstly disease free, physically, mentally, intellectually, socially, emotionally and he/she is contemplating to be on the path of spirituality. Swastha is the one, who has already established himself/herself on the path of spirituality. It is also defined as experiencing a sense of Kushala (well-being) in Sharira (Body), Shwasa (Breath), Manas (Mind), Buddhi (Intellect), Chittha (Memory), Ahankara (Ego) and getting connected with the Atma (Soul).
114. Swaasthya: Probably there is no word equivalent in any other non-Indian language in the world. “Swa” stands for the ‘Self’ and “Sthya” means ‘one who is established in’ hence Swaasthya means ‘One who is always established in the self”. Usually this word is translated as Health, but it is not so. It is actually the state attained by someone who is in harmony with body, mind, intellect, emotions, society and is also spiritually awakened.
There is a definition of Swaasthya in Sushrutha Samhita as given below:
समदोषः समाग्निश्च समधातुमलक्रिया:।
प्रसन्नात्मेन्द्रियमनाः स्वस्थ इत्यभिधीयते ॥
“One who has balanced doshas (primary life force), balanced agni (fire of digestion), properly formed dhatus (tissues), proper elimination of malas (waste products), well-functioning bodily processes and whose mind, soul and senses are full of bliss is called Swastha (One who is established in Self), a healthy person.”
In this line we can see that the shloka is saying that when the soul is happy, the senses are happy and the mind is happy – that the person abides in their natural state or health.
115. Saptha Dhatu: Dhatus are layers, strata, constituent parts, ingredients, elements, primitive matter. In Ayurveda, there are seven Dhatus (fundamental principles / elements) that support the basic structure and functioning of the body. The Dhatus can also be considered as the fundamental tissues forming the body. The Saptha Dhatus are as follows.
- Rasa dhatu (Lymph)
- Raktha dhatu (Blood)
- Mamsa dhatu (Muscles)
- Meda dhatu (Fat)
- Asthi dhatu (Bone)
- Majja dhatu (marrow (bone and spinal)
- Shukra dhatu (Reproductive juices)
Traditional texts often refer to the above as the Seven Dhātus (Saptadhātus). Ojas is known as the eighth Dhātu, or Mahādhātu. According to Ayurvedic Principles, each Dhatu has its own specific Agni. This is called Dhatu-Agni. This Agni relates to specific enzymes, chemicals and processes in the body that help convert Dhatu to higher Dhatu or Upadhatu (sub-tissue or secondary tissue). These metabolic processes also give rise to waste products, which are called Mala in Ayurveda. These include nail, hair, saliva, tear, ear wax, stool, urine, sweat etc.
The food is the precursor of all tissues. The waste products of food are stool and urine.